What changes occur in an astronaut’s body when they come back to Earth after a long mission from the ISS (International Space Station)? An interesting question in quora. The graph above depicts the typical recovery times for different physiological effects, showing that readaptation is typically about 6 weeks after return, although some facets can take 6 months.
Francis, Crick & Franklin
It makes me happy to see the structure of DNA as it is a meticulous piece of work. It grinds my gears to always see Francis & Crick with very few references to Rosalind Franklin. I mean that’s a real kicker.
True, but such is life (and such is science too). I recommend taking a look at the page “Linus Pauling and the Race for DNA: A Documentary History" (Archives Research Center - Oregon State University), and specifically this collection of quotes about the topic, including this one by the own James Watson:
Let’s just start with the Pauling thing. There’s a myth which is, you know, that Francis and I basically stole the structure from the people at King’s. I was shown Rosalind Franklin’s x-ray photograph and, Whooo! that was a helix, and a month later we had the structure, and Wilkins should never have shown me the thing. I didn’t go into the drawer and steal it, it was shown to me, and I was told the dimensions, a repeat of 34 angstroms, so, you know, I knew roughly what it meant and, uh, but it was that the Franklin photograph was the key event. It was, psychologically, it mobilised us…
Letter from Francis Crick to his son Michael, 1953
19 Portugal Place Cambridge
19 March ’53
My Dear Michael,
Jim Watson and I have probably made a most important discovery. We have built a model for the structure of de-oxy-ribose-nucleic-acid (read it carefully) called D.N.A. for short. You may remember that the genes of the chromosomes — which carry the hereditary factors — are made up of protein and D.N.A.
Our structure is very beautiful. D.N.A. can be thought of roughly as a very long chain with flat bits sticking out. The flat bits are called the “bases”. The formula is rather like this. […]
[…] In other words we think we have found the basic copying mechanism by which life comes from life. The beauty of our model is that the shape of it is such that only these pairs can go together, though they could pair up in other ways if they were floating about freely. You can understand that we are very excited. We have to have a letter off to Nature in a day or so. Read this carefully so that you understand it. When you come home we will show you the model.
Lots of love, Daddy
Sent by Marlareznor, see in their blog the original manuscript and a full transcription of the letter.